Homeland Security I.C.E.
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   The United States Customs Service was a distinct law enforcement entity within the U.S. Department of Treasury. After the attack on the United States on 9/11/2001, by an act of congress, the creation of the Department of Homeland Security was created.

   The functions of customs, immigration, transportation, federal non military installations, to name a few, came under the Department of Homeland Security. Customs inspection and investigative functions were separated. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has the uniform services: customs, immigration, and border patrol. The investigative arm of the new department was ICE Immigration, Customs investigation, and Federal Air Marshals. This investigative arm has around 10,000 agents.

   In the 1990s, U.S. Customs set up the Art Fraud Investigative Center to track and seize stolen art. This unit's headquarters was located at the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan (and was disbanded after the attacks on 9/11/01) and made several outstanding recoveries, including the return of a 14th-century Hebrew manuscript that was looted from the Jewish Library of Vienna during WWII; and a 5th-century BC solid gold phiale worth $1.2 million that was returned to its nation of origin, Italy.

   This unit was directed by Commissioner Kelly, who stated that 80% of the $30 million worth of art works seized by his agents were recovered in New York City.

   There is still a strong art/cultural property program still in place at ICE, but due to the tragic events of 9/11 additional resources were allocated to other needs. There is one agent that handles art investigations in N.Y., and several agents who investigate these crimes overseas. I.C.E. continues to aggressively investigate art related crimes.